Reasoned fertilization of the vineyard:
Vine fertilization : Vine fertilization is defined as agricultural techniques that use nutritive elements in order to maintain or improve the nutrition of vine plants and the properties of our vineyard or terroir soil (physical, chemical and biological).
In the case of viticulture, fertilization must be used with quality criteria for the harvest.
The use of fertilizers without criteria can alter the soil-plant-climate balance and consequently, the quality of our grapes will not be the desired one.
We can have different criteria and look for an abundant production, with larger bunches and berry sizes or, on the contrary, look for a lower production, with smaller bunches.
Obviously the genetic load of our vine variety , rootstock
, planting density
, operations in the vineyard … will directly influence, but these factors are not the subject of this article.
Fertilization must be planned according to our production objectives , in this way, whatever type of production it is (high yields or low yields), it will be of quality.
In this fertilization planning, factors such as the needs of the vine and the specific characteristics of the soil where it is found must be taken into account , in order to optimize quality and yields.
For this we must know the characteristics of our soil ( soil analysis) and the needs of our plant (consumption of soil nutrients) and fertilize according to what is consumed or the demand of the plant.
In this way we will avoid nutritional imbalances and maintain the balance of our vineyard: Vineyard-climate-soil.
In table 1 we can see the annual nutrient extractions based on the kilos of harvest. This allows us to know the amounts of nutrients that we should replace annually depending on the harvest obtained to maintain the nutritional balance in our soil.
Table 2 shows us the recommended amounts of fertilizer units (UF) to provide the different most important nutritive elements in vine fertilization.
Annual maintenance mineral fertilizer of the vineyard in Kg / Ha
As a reference, average annual maintenance fertilizer recommendations in the vineyard are cited, based on performance:
Production up to? 6,000 (kg / ha):? N up to 35 | P2O5 up to? 20 | K2O up to? 60? | MgO up to 15
Production 6,000-9,000 (kg / ha); N 35-45 | P2O5 20-25 | K2O 60-80 | MgO 15-20
Production? From 9,000 (kg / ha): N 45-60 | P2O5 25-40 | K2O 80-100 | MgO 20-25