In dry-land vineyards, depending on the precipitation, we establish generic vine fertilizer tables, considering the macroelements Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium and the microelements Boron, Iron and Magnesium.
1- NITROGEN (N)
Properties of nitrogen in vine cultivation:
It is the nutritive element that favors growth and vigor in the vine.
Nitrogen effect on vine plants:
Its effect is manifested by an intense green of the leaves, but you have to be very careful with nitrogen fertilization , since the vine is not very demanding on it and its excess can cause flower bleeding, increase sensitivity to cryptogamic diseases, delay maturation and make it difficult for the wood to dry well.
Nitrogen deficiency reduces growth and production. The vines have a green-yellowish appearance.
Nitrogen absorption is very fast and occurs from budding to fruit setting, when vegetative development is more intense.
The needs of the subscriber vary, in rainfed conditions from 30 to 60 UF / ha.
2- MATCH (P)
Properties of phosphorus in vine cultivation:
It has great importance in the metabolism of carbohydrates.
It favors root development increasing resistance to drought.
It dampens the effects of an excess of nitrogen and influences the fertilization, the maturation and the good drying of the wood.
Effects of phosphorus on the vine plant:
It is considered as a quality factor in vineyards that produces balanced musts.
The most intense absorption takes place from budding to flowering.
Subscriber needs are highly variable and can range from 50 to 200 UF / ha, depending on the nutritive level of the soil and the richness of limestone, for a given production.
3- POTASIO (K)
Properties of potassium in vineyards:
It is considered an element that favors production and quality .
Effect on strains:
Potassium intervenes in respiration, in the assimilation of chlorophyll, in the transport and accumulation of carbohydrates to the bunches and to the different parts of the plant to form reserves, contributing to greater longevity and increased resistance to drought. .
Very high levels of potassium can be the cause of the appearance of magnesium deficiencies, due to the antagonism of these two elements.
Vineyard fertilizer recommendations: Subscriber needs vary between 40 and 150 UF / ha in dry land, and can reach 240 UF / ha under irrigation.
4- MAGNESIO (Mg)
Properties of magnesium in vineyards:
It is a component of chlorophyll that is involved in the synthesis of carbohydrates.
Effects on plants:
Its deficiency is manifested as chlorosis in the old leaves at the base of the branches, these can fall prematurely causing the emission of “grandchildren”.
The bunches of grapes appear loose with an evident loss of weight.
5- IRON (Faith)
It is an essential microelement in respiration and in complicated reduction-oxidation processes of the plant.
Effects on the vine:
Its deficiency is manifested by a chlorosis of the young leaves at the tips of the branches, which progresses towards the leaves at the base and in extreme cases, the total loss of production and the death of the vine are reached.
The deficiency is usually caused by a limestone content in the soil, higher than the resistance limit of the rootstock.
6- BORO (Bo), vineyard fertilizer recommendations:
Effects on plants of boron:
The deficiency of this microelement is manifested first in the leaves with a diffuse chlorosis before flowering.
The shoots have short internodes and in severe cases the growth of the terminal meristem stops and branches are formed.
Fertilization is poor and the clusters have grapes of normal size or greater than those of the variety, along with a majority much smaller.
The deficiency usually occurs in sandy soils and limestone.
7- Vineyard fertilizer recommendations, in dry land:
Only a basic fertilizer will be made in the center of the streets, with a complex fertilizer suitable for the levels of nutritive elements in the soil and the average rainfall in the area.
In general, the right time for application is the months of November, December and January.
In the case of being carried out with a localizing fertilizer machine , which cuts the roots of horizontal development in its path, the fertilizer will be carried out:
- The first year , on alternate streets,
- The second year the streets that were not paid the previous
- In the third and fourth year the subscriber of alternate streets is crossed.
With this rotation of subscriber it is intended not to produce an imbalance between the aerial part and the root system .
8- Recommendations for vineyard fertilizer, irrigated:
The background fertilizer will be complemented with a Calcium Ammonium Nitrate with Magnesium, according to the availability of water, type of pruning and expected production, after setting.
You may be interested in delving into the effects of the nutrients necessary for the vine: