1- Subscriber Plan of the Vine
This article tries to give the guidelines for the realization of a plan of subscriber of the grapevine. To know the doses and types of fertilizer, it is better to visit the post on Viña Subscriber Recommendations. Nutrient dose per Ha.
The objective of the fertilization of the vine is to ensure a level of nutrients in the soil that allows the growth of the vine and the production of good quality grapes.
2- Crop fertilization focuses on macronutrients .
Macronutrients: Nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P2O5) and potassium (K2O); the need for micronutrients is detected in the analyzes or in the appearance of deficiencies.
In the vineyard, the contributions of N should be moderate , since a high availability of N can cause excessive vegetative growth, which would affect the quality of the harvest due to incomplete ripening, appearance of rot fungi, etc.
A maximum annual contribution of 40 fertilizer units (UF) of N per hectare is established, but the previous amount may reach up to 60 UF of N / ha per year in case the fertilization is carried out with organic fertilizers, since the assimilation of N by the plant is slower.
An excess of potassium (K2O) in the soil can induce a rise in the pH of the must, with the consequent risks of low acid harvests; Contributions must be made based on the needs of the variety and the foliar and soil analyzes, in order to avoid microbiological and stability problems during the wine-making process.
To achieve and maintain adequate nutrient levels, a background fertilizer is applied before planting and a maintenance fertilizer is applied throughout the productive life of the plantation.
3- How do you design a subscription plan for the vine?
It is recommended to design a Subscriber Plan that determines:
• Time and calendar of application.
• Dose of nutritional elements.
• Form of application.
• Type and characteristics of the fertilizer.
The realization of the Subscriber Plan must consider:
- Level of existing nutrients in the soil; It is advisable to periodically carry out an analysis of the macronutrients (mainly P2O5, K2O and organic matter).
- Plant growth and nutritional status : monitoring can be determined by foliar analysis.
- Annual extractions depending on the quantity of grapes produced.
- Soil characteristics that determine the mobility of nutrients and the plant’s absorption capacity.
- Contributions made by other means (irrigation water).
The foliar analyzes and the soil analyzes are basic tools to determine the vineyard fertilization plan and to carry out the monitoring of the nutritional status of the vine; These analyzes make it possible to assess the response of the plant to the applied fertilizer and correct deviations.
In any case, it is advisable to periodically perform foliar analyzes (every 3-5 years) as long as there are no obvious nutritional problems that should be determined to correct them.
However, there are regulations (eg Integrated Viticulture) that may require foliar and soil tests to be performed more often.
The vineyard subscriber plan must be carried out for each plot that meets agronomic, variety and rootstock conditions, and homogeneous soil and microclimate characteristics, which is known as the Homogeneous Cultivation Unit (UHC).
The supply of nutrients will be carried out primarily through the soil and foliar fertilizers will be reserved for cases of obvious deficiencies, which need a punctual corrective treatment.
Organic or mineral fertilizers will not be applied at times or with systems that could lead to direct contamination of the grape.
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