What Denominations of Origin protect Sherry wines?
The wines made within the Jerez Framework are legally protected by the Denominations of Origin “Jerez-Xérès-Sherry” and “Manzanilla – Sanlúcar de Barrameda”.
Why are Sherry wines special? How are they made?
Sherry wines are special for their peculiar elaboration and for the influence of their production area.
The elaboration of the wine begins like any other traditional elaboration. It starts from the Palomino variety , which is fermented in a traditional way , leaving the wine with a maximum amount of residual sugar of 5 g / L , in this way the base wine is obtained .
The wines with greater aromatic finesse are headed (addition of alcohol) up to 15º and will be destined for biological aging in casks (typical Jerez barrels); they are Manzanilla, Fino and Amontillado.
The casks are filled with wine in 5/6 parts, thus allowing the flower veil yeasts to act , starting at this moment the biological aging of the wine , without contact with the air.
The barrels are arranged in rows of different heights ( criaderas, the highest, and solera, the lowest ). The newly headed wine is deposited in the highest criadera and will be transferred over time to the lower criaderas until it reaches the solera, from where the wine to be consumed will be extracted.
The wine with less aromatic finesse is headed above 17º of alcohol, thus preventing the proliferation of flower veil yeasts, and starting the aging in the presence of oxygen. The Oloroso and Palo Cortado will be obtained.
Its albariza soils, its proximity to the sea, which provides moisture not only to the plant, but also to the biological aging conditions, allow a special development of the cultivation and aging of the wine.
What categories are there within the Marco de Jerez wines?
These wines are divided into three categories: Generous, Generous Liquor and Natural Sweets , depending on the characteristics of the musts, the production process, the aging process, or the practice of nodding.
Depending on how this aging takes place, the wines are obtained:
Made only in Sanlúcar de Barrameda. The base wine is headed to 15º . The color of the final wine is straw yellow.
Straw-yellow in color, the base wine is topped at 15º , then it undergoes more than two years of biological aging .
It undergoes an initial aging phase under flower veil followed by an oxidative aging phase (in the presence of oxygen); in this way the wine acquires an amber color and an alcoholic graduation of between 16º and 22º.
The base wine is headed above 17º , not being able to act the yeast of flower veil and producing exclusively the oxidative aging . It is between amber and mahogany.
Its alcoholic graduation is above 17º and, like odorous, this high concentration of alcohol prevents the growth of flower yeast, producing only oxidative aging . It is mahogany in color.
The Sherry Wines Generous of Liquor
They are wines obtained by nodding from fortified wines with natural sweet wines or, in some cases, with concentrated must. They have a sugar content greater than 5 g / L.
Depending on the fortified wines used as a base and the final sugar levels of the pitch, the following types are distinguished:
Made from a biologically aged wine (Fino or Manzanilla) to which rectified concentrated must has been added . It is straw yellow to pale gold in color.
It is made from mixing or finishing a fortified wine (amontillado or other wines with biological aging) with a natural sweet wine or with rectified concentrated must. Its degree of sugar is between 5 and 115 g / L. Amber to dark brown in color.
It is a wine made by mixing generous oxidative aging wines (mainly fragrant) with a significant contribution of natural sweet wine or rectified concentrated must (generally Pedro Ximénez ). It has a sugar content greater than 115 g / L. Brown to dark mahogany in color.
They are obtained from overripe or sunny grapes , generally from Moscatel (brown to intense mahogany wines) or from Pedro Ximénez (ebony colored wines). Due to the high concentration of sugar in the grape, the fermentation is partial , resulting in the wine with great sweetness . Wine alcohol is added at the beginning of fermentation.
The new wines are subsequently aged under oxidation conditions, which causes them to acquire an intense mahogany color and a dense appearance.