For table grapes, irrigation is practically essential, because our production objectives are completely different. Here we look for large bunches and large berries, which are juicy and appetizing and which “enter by sight”, without losing the flavor.
The production objective in viticulture for winemaking is the complete opposite.
We look for small Mayas and small clusters , because it is in this type of grape that the best wines are made.
Today, in professional viticulture and due to mechanization issues and the depreciation of farms, there are a significant number of plantations that are installed with irrigation from the beginning.
The most widely used systems are underground irrigation and aerial irrigation , both with dripping flow rates of 4 liters per hour.
In buried irrigation , the distance between drips that works well is 50 cm and in aerial irrigation , the hoses with integrated meter dropper work well.
If the unevenness is significant and the plots are very large, the use of self-compensating drippers is recommended . This type of dripping works in such a way that until the entire circuit reaches the working pressure, none of them open.
In this way it is avoided that the drips at the beginning of the line throw more water than those at the end of the line. They are a little more expensive , but as I say their use is justified in large plots or with significant slopes.
Drip Irrigation Hoses
I always recommend a 16mm irrigation tube (which is the standard) with integrated drippers at 50cm. Integrated drip hose. In this way the hose is distributed and there will be strains that the drip will fall on them and others will not, but as it is, it looks good.
The root system of the strain is powerful enough to fetch the water source.
The other issue is to take a blind hose and puncture drips where the strain is, but this in the end what usually causes is that the plant has an excess of humidity at the base and triggers diseases related to excess water. This is solved by puncturing the drip between strains.
Drip irrigation hoses 16mm
The irrigation hoses can be smooth and we will insert the drips where we think appropriate or they can already be with integrated drippers .
Drips for irrigation
There are drips of many flows and of many types. To choose the type of drip that interests us, we have to look at basically 3 things:
- The drips that are integrated into the hose and those that have to be punctured by hand.
- Those that are self-compensating and those that are not.
- The flow rate of each drip.
Choose here the dripper for irrigation that suits your needs
Pieces for 16mm pipe
The essential accessories to install an irrigation system are the following, the straight link, the 90 degree elbow, the T and the tap.
How to install an automatic drip irrigation system? Irrigation controllers
Irrigation programmers are interesting because the amount of water that we want is applied . Experience tells me that when you have to go to open or close the tap you never go at the same time, nor do you never water the same time. It is very interesting to install an automatic irrigation system.
The programmers not only avoid the trip, but also help us to provide the exact amount of water needed, no more and no less.
Depending on the development of the plant, I always recommend the following irrigation plan, with 4L / H drippers:
- DECEMBER-JUNE PLANTATION : A long plantation irrigation, 8h.
- MARCH-APRIL: if it does not rain, a watering of 8 hours a month.
- MAY: If it doesn’t rain, one watering every 2 weeks from 8h. If it rains 4h irrigation.
- JUNE-JULY: A weekly irrigation of 4h
- AUGUST: 2 irrigations of 4 hours, one every 15 days.
- From SEPTEMBER watering is no longer usual, but if the summer lasts a long time we will have to do it.
- Long watering after harvests is important .
With this the needs of the vine are more than covered. There are many factors to consider and this is a general recommendation.
For the professional viticulturist, other things should be taken into account such as type of soil, variety, rootstock, planting density, weather, production objectives …
In the case of small plantations and irrigation in the garden, a small garden, with these types of programmers is enough.
Professional irrigation controller
When we already have a larger surface area and we have to set up several irrigation sectors or we simply need a programmer that also activates a spreader or venturi , then we go up to the next level:
WIFI irrigation controllers
Modern viticulture already has irrigation connected via WIFI, 3G or 4G and SMS to be able to activate irrigation from our mobile device. Things of the XXI century.
Solenoid valves for irrigation
The agricultural irrigation solenoid valves are what is connected to the irrigation programmer to open and close the tap. One is required for each irrigation sector and they must be mounted near the controller. For all this, an irrigation house is always also set up.
Drip irrigation kit
Here several automatic irrigation kits are proposed so that you do not have to go looking for the different parts, everything is sold together at a cheaper price. It is ideal for small plantations.
Fertilizers and manure injectors
Fertilizer fertilizers for drip irrigation are tools that in one way or another inject the fertilizer , or whatever we want, into the irrigation system. In this way, the water already distributes the fertilizer to us.
For plants it is very interesting and beneficial , because the fertilizer is already dissolved so the absorption time of the crops will be much shorter.
Another important advantage is the location of the nutrient , we fertilize where we want, not throughout the plot.
And finally, it should be noted that the amounts of fertilizer used in drip irrigation are much lower , which also saves us costs.
The injectors hydraulic fertilizer have the advantage that they do not need much pressure to operate. They are also the ones who inject in a more regular and constant way. They are somewhat more expensive than venturi but they work better. The downside is that they are somewhat more expensive.
Venturi fertilizer injector
Venturi injectors are the most used system for the injection of fertilizers.
The disadvantage is that it needs at least one kilo of pressure to operate the venturi, so if we are in an area with low pressure, this system will reduce the pressure of the network.
On the contrary, the advantages are many. It is a very easy to install and very practical system and one of the most economical in injection of fertilizers. It can be automated. The distribution of the fertilizer is quite homogeneous.
It is the system that I use the most if the network is under pressure.
Fertilizers for irrigation
The fertilizer irrigation dairy type , are the fertilizer injection system that was used before. It was the first. It consists of a tank where the fertilizer and water are put in and with a stopcock it is injected into the irrigation pipe.
It has the disadvantage that the dose you inject is difficult to control and the fertilizer may be very concentrated at first.
For me, this solution has only one advantage , and that is that with very little pressure the system already works. Only in very low pressure conditions is its installation justified.
Moisture Sensor for Irrigation
The control of humidity in the soil is very important since both the lack of water and the excess are harmful. Maintaining the adequate availability of water for the plants will favor their development.
We propose soil moisture control systems that will help us make the decision of when and how much to water.