Trellis driving system. Codon Royat.
As we have already commented previously, the vine conduction system is a crucial factor for the correct formation of the plant , serving as a determining element to optimize crop performance and obtain quality grapes . If in the last entry we focused on the main characteristics of the glass conduction system, this time we will take care of the trellises, conduction systems that respond to a concept diametrically opposed to the previous system.
These systems consist of a palisade structure that leads the plant mass vertically, giving rise to linear vegetation (Figure 1) that can be modified depending on the structure used and the interest of the winegrower, providing a wide range of driving possibilities ( Yuste, 2001). Among the trellis systems most used worldwide we find the short pruning system on the Royat cordon , which we will focus on in this post.
The Royat cordon is a pruning system in which the productive and renewal elements are distributed in fixed positions without varying year after year along a permanent cordon (Figure 2). The system can be made up of a double or single cord. Once constituted, it is a simple system, where it is enough to renew each of the thumbs in the same position using the lowest sprouting shoot from the thumb of the previous year.
How is a Royat cord formed?
According to Reynier (2012), the training will be carried out as follows:
- First year : the plants are reduced to two buds to obtain sufficiently vigorous woods.
- Second year : the branch preserved to form the trunk rises and curves horizontally to form an arm. This shoot should be conveniently located in the vertical extension of the vine and have the buds arranged above and below in the curved horizontal part, which will be wound around the wire. The buds on the vertical part of the trunk will be removed in winter except for one (located below the carrier wire), which will make it possible to obtain a second arm in the case of a bilateral cordon. Spring weeding will suppress shoots located below the horizontal part of the shoot in contact with the wire, except the terminal shoot, which will allow the cord to extend along the wire the following year.
- Third year : the branches of all the buds located above the trunk are pruned to two buds, in thumbs, constituting the arms. The terminal shoot kept in the third year of pruning in the lower part of the horizontal part is pruned to three or four buds and tied to the wire in the extension of the trunk. At the time of spring disbudding, all the buds located below on the horizontal axis will be suppressed, except if you want to leave the terminal bud to continue extending the cordon.
- Fourth year : the first part of the cordon has arms with two shoots each: only one per arm should be left (preferably the lowest one), pruned to two buds. The shoots that appear in the extensions will be pruned in thumbs to two buds.
Training scheme Poda Royat Cordon Doble.
Scheme Pruning Royat Cordon SIMPLE.
Advantages and disadvantages Poda Royat (Reynier, 2012) :
1- Advantages cordon Royat:
- Annual pruning is simple and fast , adapting to temporary labor with little training or experience.
- It is a system adaptable to mechanization systems .
- Adequate aeration and sun exposure of the bunches is achieved .
- Good adaptation to phytosanitary treatments .
2- Cordon Royat drawbacks:
- The formation pruning is long and delicate.
- The pruner may find it difficult to balance the vegetation.
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